MUSIC 3243 

Tarleton State University

Instructor:  Dr. Vicky Johnson  

E-mail:  vjohnson@tarleton.edu  

Office Phone:  254/968-9238 




       PowerPoint Project            


Study Guides

Online Help



Blackboard Help Desk 968-1960




Note:   This is an organic document!  It will change.  You are responsible for what is on this page, not a copy you made at the beginning of the semester.  Please help by notifying me if there are broken links - they may contain information that you will be tested on later!


Week #

Week Dates

All are Mon.-Sun.

Topic for Study



@ midnight



@ midnight



Aug 30 - Sept 5

Introduction to Popular Music

Tin Pan Alley


Post: Fri Sept 3

Resp.: Sun Sept 5

Assignment 1


Sun. Sept 5


Exam Info


Sept 6 - Sept 12

American Musical Theater

Discussion 1

Post: Fri Sept 10

Resp: Sun Sept 12

Assignment 2

Sun. Sept 12




Sept 13 - Sept 19

African-American Influences


Discussion 2

Post: Fri Sept 17

Resp: Sun Sept 19

Assignment 3

Sun. Sept 19




Sept 20 - Sept 26

Early Jazz

Big Bands and Swing

Discussion 3

Post: Fri Sept 24

Resp: Sun Sept 26

Assignment 4

Sun. Sept 26




Sept 27 - Oct 3

Jazz after World War II




Unit 1 Exam

Sunday Oct 3

(between 8 - 10pm)


Oct 4 - Oct 10

Country Roots

Country Western

Discussion 4

Post: Fri Oct 8

Resp: Sun Oct 10

Assignment 5

Sun. Oct 10



Oct 11 - Oct 17

The Ladies of Country Music


Discussion 5

Post: Fri Oct 15

Resp: Sun Oct 17

Assignment 6

Sun. Oct 17




Oct 18 - Oct 24

Nashville and Beyond


Assignment 7

Sun. Oct 24


Unit 2 Exam

Sunday Oct 24

(between 8 - 10pm)


Oct 25 - Oct 31

Rock 'n' Roll Roots

The Golden Age of Rock

Discussion 6

Post: Fri Oct 29

Resp: Sun Oct 31





Nov 1 - Nov 7

The British Invasion

Discussion 7

Post: Fri Nov 5

Resp: Sun Nov 7




Nov 8 - Nov 14

Gospel, Soul, and Motown

Rock in the 70's

Discussion 8

Post: Fri Nov 12

Resp: Sun Nov 14






Nov 15 - Nov 21

80's and 90's Rock


Assignment 8

Sun. Nov 21


Unit 3 Exam

Sunday Nov 21

(between 8 - 10pm)


Nov 22 - Nov 28

Work on final project

  Assignment 9Sun. Nov 28 


Nov 29 - Dec 5

Work on final project


Final Project


Sun. Dec 5




Dec 6 - Dec 8

     Optional Final Exam

Wednesday Dec 8

(between 8 - 10pm)


Before we get started, here's a "word to the wise":

Have you ever seen a sign (usually behind a secretary's desk) that looks something like this:



The same applies to your grade.  Be aware that I use standard 'rounding' procedures.  An 89.4 is a B and an 89.5 is an A.  If you don't want your grade to depend upon 1/10 of a point, plan ahead, do not beg me at the end.


Week 1


Introduction to Popular Music

Tin Pan Alley 


Greetings online students!  


Welcome to Popular Music in America. On this Course Outline page, you will find links to the lectures for each week, as well as any general information for the class.  The animated bullets to the right will designate "action" items, so be sure you accomplish these each week.  There is an overview calendar at the top of the page for quick reference.


Please review this Pre-course Information.


Take a look at the  Popular Music Syllabus

This contains grading and policy information.  Let me know if you have any questions. 


Please read these instructions about the Discussions

Note:  Please use the Ask Dr. J discussion forum for all questions unless they are only specific to you. 

For example, if you are having trouble zipping a file, clarification on an assignment, problems with accessing digital formats, etc., Ask Dr. J.  Otherwise, I end up answering the same questions over and over if individual emails are sent.  Feel free to use email for personal issues.  When I log in, I check the Ask Dr. J first anyway!


"Working Ahead"


Students will sometimes energetically tackle the assignments for the course and turn in several ahead of time, or answer discussion questions in advance.  While there is no rule against this, be aware that the assumption is that learning is continually taking place and that a synthesis of information and understanding should be evident as the course progresses.  In other words, you will be smarter in Week 2 than you are in Week 1, etc., so if you complete your work too far in advance, you won't have the benefit of the things you learn along the way.  There is also the possibility that questions will be answered that will benefit you during the week of the discussion or the assignment.  That having been said . . . . .





The assignment for Week 13 of this class is a PowerPoint presentation on a popular music topic of your choice.  The technology involved in attaching audio files (which are required) and zipping the project for submission causes significant anxiety for some students.  I am therefore giving you fair warning that tech savvy is necessary for that project.  Do not wait until the last week to address this issue.   


Even if you think you are familiar with PowerPoint,


Have you ever used mp3 files linked to the slides? 

Have you ever made audio clips of mp3 files? 

Have you ever used WinZip for file compression?


If any of those answers are "No," then allow extra time.


Otherwise . . .

Now, click in to the first lecture, and let's get started!


Lecture:  Introduction to Popular Music and Tin Pan Alley


Note that at the bottom of each of these Lecture pages (linked throughout) there is a link back to this page.  Be sure to choose "Course Outline Long Semester" and not "Course Outline Summer" or you'll do the wrong assignments!!

Blackboard /Computer configuration


Follow this link  and make sure your computer is set to the specifications listed.  Testing and assignment submission will not work otherwise.


Follow this link to set Blackboard e-mail to forward to the one you check most often


Also, please go through the Blackboard Orientation.  The icon is to the right of the Course Outline icon.


Week 1 Reading:  Chapter 1


Note:  We cover the entire book in the class.  Please note that the lectures do not include all questions found on the exams, so skip the reading at your own risk!



In the discussion forum, please introduce yourself to your online classmates.  Include any personal information that would help us to get to know you; for example, your major, future career plans, home town, family info, etc.  For my own information, I would also like to know where you are living while taking this course.  Also, tell us what your favorite popular music is and what influences have caused that to be so.  Did you grow up with that kind of music, were you more influenced by your friends, or do you just march to a different drummer?  Last of all, please give an overview of your experiences as a musician.  Did you take piano lessons, play in the band, join a church choir, sing in the shower?  Don't be modest.  I promise I won't ask you to perform!

After writing your answer in the discussion forum, feel free to respond to your classmates' posts in order to get to know them a little better.  This discussion question will not be graded, but try to post your introduction by Friday so others can respond if they wish.

One more thing:  Before writing your introduction, please review the Discussion info and use this opportunity to practice correct discussion protocol, such as using correct punctuation, capitalization, sentence structure, etc.  Then, if you refer to yourself as "i" instead of "I" we will all know who read the instructions and who didn't!


Assignment 1:  Music List


Your textbook discusses over 65 types (or styles) of popular music in America.  Look through your textbook (all of it, not just the first reading assignment) and see how many you can find.  Hint:  the bold headings and chapter summaries of your book are very helpful, but not all of them fit the criteria.


  List them in the submission window in the Assignments tab.  Be sure to number them.  If they are not numbered, I will return them to you.


 You will receive 2 points for every style of popular music that you list (up to the 100 possible points for the assignment).  It's always wise to throw in a few more than 50, to ensure that you get full credit for the assignment.  Type this information in the submission window in the Assignments tab.  Do not send as an attachment.


Make sure you list styles (Swing), and not times (Swing Era), people (Big Bands), or forms (strophic).  Ask yourself on each one:  Is this a popular American style?  Does it (or did it) make money in America?


Looking ahead: 

Next week's assignment requires you to watch a video of a musical.  Since these videos are not recent releases, be sure to give yourself sufficient time to locate one of those listed.  For those of you with digital recorders (like Tivo) on your TVs, sometimes you can search the guide for a title and record the program.


Also, in Week 4, you will be asked to choose and watch a movie from the Jazz Movie List.  Try to find one of these movies OTHER THAN "Ray."  I know that this is the most accessible one, but the discussion will be much more interesting with a variety of movies to discuss.




Week 2 

American Musical Theater


Lecture:  Musical Theater

Choose one of the following musicals for Assignment 2:



Fiddler on the Roof



Singing in the Rain

South Pacific

The King and I

The Music Man

West Side Story

Week 2 Reading:  Chapter 2



Assignment 2:  On Broadway


Rent a DVD of a musical and watch it.  Choose from the following musicals:  Showboat, Oklahoma, Singing in the Rain, Evita, or West Side Story.  Choose one that you have never seen, if possible.  Answer the questions on the Assignment 2 WorksheetRemember to use correct grammar, punctuation, and spelling.  Submit the completed worksheet by the due date and time in the form of a Word document saved as Assignment 2_YourName.doc


Read these instructions on Assignment Submissions, paying particular attention to the instructions about the Assignment heading and how to name the file before submission.


Upload the Word document in the assignment section as an attachment.


Note:  When referring to a single song, use quotation marks ("Oh What a Beautiful Morning") but when referring to a larger work, such as a symphony or a musical, use italics (Phantom of the Opera).


Discussion 1:  Musical Theater (content graded by peers)


What musicals have you seen?  What was your opinion of them?  Is this still a viable form of entertainment in our current popular culture or will it go the way of the dinosaur (and vaudeville)?  Why or why not?  Remember to support your answers with what you have learned, not just your opinion.  Answer the questions by Friday (midnight) and post responses to your peers by Sunday (midnight). Use the peer review function and rate all of the original posts that you read; in other words, your classmates' answers to the question, but not the responses that are due on Sunday.  For instructions on how this works, see the Discussion Info


On this discussion, your classmates' ratings will partially determine your grade, so be sure to read the "Rate Your Peers" part of the Discussion Info.


Week 3 

African-American Influences



Lecture:  Jazz Part I



When you are working on your assignment for this week, below is a direct link to the lecture page with examples, so that you can check for proper form. 


Note: LOTS of students make the mistake of writing some verses on a "woe is me" topic, thinking that constitutes the blues.  They have to be in a very specific form and rhyme scheme to be counted as correct.  Please follow the instructions on the Blues page linked below.


The Blues


Week 3 Reading:  Chapters 3, 4, and 5


Assignment 3:  Write your own blues song


Compose your own blues song.  See your text (pp.57-58) and the lecture notes for more info.  You do not have to write the music, but the words only.  Your song should have at least 3 different verses (each verse would be 3 lines long as in the example on the bottom of p. 58). See more examples on the Blues page.  Choose your own topic - perhaps too much rain, or your part-time job, or online college classes can give you inspiration!  


Type your blues song into the submission window in the Assignments tab.  Do not send as an attachment.  These will be published for your classmates to see after the deadline (which is again Sunday midnight).


Discussion 2:  Discrimination and jazz (content graded by Dr. J)


Before you begin this assignment, please review the Discussion Info.


Based upon what you have learned through your reading and other valid sources (and NOT your assumptions or pre-conceived notions), how did race discrimination affect the development of jazz?  How might jazz be different today if there had been no discrimination against black composers and performers?  Be specific in your conjecture (not just "better" or "worse").  Do not limit your answer to slavery issues, but follow the path of discrimination forward as well.  Be sure to use quotation marks if a phrase or passage is not your own.  DO NOT just paraphrase your textbook.  Use information - do not regurgitate it. 


Answer the questions by Friday (midnight) and post responses to peers by Sunday (midnight).  



Week 4 


Don't forget to check out your classmates' blues songs from last week.

Click on the "Published" tab in the Assignments section.

Early Jazz
Big Bands and Swing

Lecture:  Jazz Part II




Week 4 Reading:  Chapters 6, 7, and 8


Assignment 4:  NEA Jazz in the schools


Follow this link to find some jazz Listening Exercises.  Choose Listening Two and answer the questions.  Use this template for your answers.  Be sure to look up any words you do not understand before you answer the questions.  For example, what is "collective improvisation"?  There are 10 musical examples, so you should answer those questions for each musical example.


Submit your answer by the due date and time.  Rename the template document  Assignment4_YourName.doc and submit as usual.


Discussion 3:  Back to the Movies (content graded by peers)


Choose a movie from the Jazz section of the Movie List to rent and watch.  In your discussion forum, give a brief summary of the movie.  Share something you learned about jazz that you found particularly interesting and name the jazz song in the movie that you liked best. 

Note:  Remember to try to find one of these movies OTHER THAN "Ray." 


Post by Friday (midnight) and post responses by Sunday (midnight).


Week 5

Jazz after World War II

Unit 1 Exam - Sunday

 Lecture:  Jazz Part III



Please notice that I have posted a study guide (below) to help you prepare for the Unit 1 test.


Unit 1 Practice

Here is a fun way to review the material


Unit 1 Study Guide


Exam Info


Week 5 Reading:  Chapter 9




No assignment this week.  Study for the Unit I exam (see study guide to your left)  However, there is new material in the lecture (Jazz Part III) that will also be included in the test.


Practice Test  


This is posted in the Assessment section and consists of only 6 questions.  You may take this at any time.  It will give you an idea of the types of questions that will be on the exam and will ensure that all of your technology is working properly.  There will not be a Practice Test prior to the other 2 exams.


Unit 1 Exam


Sunday:  You may begin any time between 8:00pm and 10:00pm.  You will have 1 hour to complete the exam after you begin.  You may begin anytime within this window of time. 


Before you begin, be sure to print out the Listening ListThe answers to the listening questions will be the numbers assigned to the songs on that page.


If you answer with the names of the songs instead of the number, all of your answers will be counted wrong!


Note that there is a large question set for each exam and the questions are randomly selected for each student and each test.  Therefore, the test may not seem to be comprehensive because of this random selection of questions.  However, don't be fooled into studying selectively for the next exam based upon the chance selections you got on this one!


Please review the Exam Info before taking the exam - even if you have already read it!


Week 6

Country Roots
Country Western


Lecture:  Country Roots


Lecture:  Country AND Western



No assignment this week to submit.


Week 6 Reading:  Chapters 10, 11, and 12


Assignment 5


American Roots Music Episode 1

This video will give you an excellent background on the different types of music that form the basis (the beginnings) of all the popular music we have today.

  1. Watch the first episode (Parts 1 and 2) of American Roots Music.  You will see the link beside the Course Outline link. 

  2. Print out this page of questions and answer the questions while you watch the streaming video.  Just circle the correct answer as you watch the video.  The questions are in the order that you will see on the video. Remember that there can be more than one correct answer to a question, so you may have more than one answer circled one some questions.

  3. After you have answered the questions to your satisfaction, go to the "Assessment" tab and enter your answers into the ARM Episode 1 Quiz.  You can begin to enter the answers at any time until the Sunday night deadline.  Once you begin, you will have one hour to enter your answers.

Discussion 4:  Country Culture (content graded by Dr. J)

Your textbook in Chapter 10 paints a picture of the culture of the rural south that was reflected in early country music.  How much of that culture do you think still remains in the rural south today? (I’m talking attitude, not occupation).  Is it still male-dominated with macho tendencies?  Is it still shaped by Fundamentalist Christianity?  Is it still “behind the times”?  Many of you live or have lived in rural areas.  Others have lived mostly in urban areas and have a very different perspective.  Feel free to give specific examples to illustrate your conclusions.

Answer the questions by Friday (midnight) and post responses by Sunday (midnight)

Week 7

Lecture: The Ladies of Country Music

Lecture:  Bluegrass



Week 7 Reading:  Chapter 14


Assignment 6:  Country Music Trivia tests


Go to the following link and choose 3 quizzes.  Test your knowledge of Country Music.  List the 3 quizzes that you took and your scores.  Type this information in the submission window in the Assignments tab (NOT in a Word doc).  This assignment will not be graded, but will be checked for completion.


Country Music Trivia Quizzes


Discussion 5:   Country music article (content graded by Dr. J)


In The Economist, there is an article called "Country Music:  Middle America's Soul."  The article says "If you want to understand America, turn that dial to a country-music station."


Read the article (link below) and comment on its content.  You may agree or disagree, but be specific.  You may prefer to comment on the writer's assessment of country music as it relates to politics, economics, sociology, patriotism, religion, or any of the other associations that are made. 

Note:  Please base your discussion points upon factors beyond your personal opinion.  Your particular preference for country music does not constitute a justification for your answer. 


Answer the questions by Friday (midnight) and post responses by Sunday (midnight)


Country Music:  Middle America's Soul



Week 8



Lecture:  Nashville and Beyond




Unit 2 Practice


Unit 2 Study Guide


Exam Info


Week 8 Reading:  Chapter 13


Assignment 7:  Do-It-Yourself Country Western Songkit

This is just a fun exercise - a tongue-in-cheek version of country song-writing

Go to the link above and fill in one for yourself.  Use suggestions from the list, or make up your own.  Don't change the other part, though, or it won't rhyme. 


Write your version out in verse form (as it is in the Songkit).  Submit this one by typing it in the submission blank (NOT in a Word doc).  I will check this off as completed, but it won't be graded.



If you'd like to see how your song would sound, here is a midi file to


Red River Valley


This tune will fit your newly created country hit!


Unit 2 Exam

Sunday:  You may begin any time between 8:00pm and 10:00pm.  You will have 1 hour to complete the exam after you begin.


You may begin anytime within this window of time.  Before you begin, be sure to print out the Listening List.  The answers to the listening questions will be the numbers assigned to the songs on that page.  Do not use a period after the number.



Week 9



Lecture:  Rock 'n' Roll Roots





Week 9 Reading:  Chapters 15 and 16


Discussion 6:   The first Rock 'n' Roll song (content graded by peers)

On the lecture page (to your left), the question is posed, "What was the first rock song?"  Four possibilities are offered by your text, and audio links are provided on the lecture page.  There is also a link to a more extensive list.  Listen to the songs and draw your own conclusions.  Which song would you choose and why?  Be sure to justify your opinion.  Remember to avoid the "I agree" responses unless you offer some additional perspective. Answer the questions by Friday (midnight) and post responses to two peers by Sunday (midnight).


Week 10

Lecture:  60s Rock

The British Invasion

Psychedelic Rock





Week 10 Reading:  Chapters 17 and 18


Discussion 7:   Crossover (content graded by Dr. J)

Your lecture notes last week mentioned that Elvis Presley's "Don't Be Cruel" (recorded in 1956) was the first record ever to reach number one simultaneously on Billboard's pop, R&B, and country charts. Why did that happen?  What do you think was happening at that time within these three genres?  How did this process manifest itself into the 60s?

Answer the questions by Friday (midnight) and post responses by Sunday (midnight)

Week 11


Lecture:  Gospel, Soul, Motown



Lecture:  Rock in the 70's




Week 11 Reading:  Chapters 19, 20, and 21


Discussion 8:  How do they mix? (content graded by peers)

Do you think that there is a natural and necessary chasm between the styles of classical music and popular music, or is it an artificial separation?  Based upon your answer to the first question, do you think art rock  successfully mixed the two genres, or not?

Answer the questions by Friday (midnight) and post responses by Sunday (midnight).

Week 12


Unit 3 Exam - Sunday

Lecture:  80's and 90's Rock

There IS no lecture this week.   The material is covered in the last 2 chapters of the textbook.

Refer to the Unit 3 Study Guide below for the audio clips from the last chapters

Unit 3 Practice


Unit 3 Study Guide


Exam Info



Week 12 Reading:  Chapters 22, 23, and 24


Assignment 8

Submit the title of the PowerPoint that you have chosen for your final project.  Give a title and brief description of your content. 

Do not submit as a Word document.  Just type your info into the window in the assignment section.  This assignment will not be graded, but will be checked for completion.


No Discussion this week


Unit 3 Exam

Sunday:  You may begin any time between 8:00pm and 10:00pm.  You will have 1 hour to complete the exam after you begin

You may begin anytime within this window of time.  Before you begin, be sure to print out the Listening List.  The answers to the listening questions will be the numbers assigned to the songs on that page.



Week 13

Work on final project

 PowerPoint Project



Assignment 9

I am always trying to improve this course.  Please answer the following questions to help me do this.  Here is the link for the questions:  Assessment Questions.  Type your answers into this Word document.  Save it as Assignment 9_YourName.doc (or docx) This assignment will not be graded, but will be checked for completion.


No Discussion this week


Week 14

Work on final project


Important:  Even after you have finished your last exam and turned in your last assignment and discussion posts, continue to log into Blackboard.  Check your assignments to see if any have been returned to you and check the "My Grades" tab.  If there is not a grade on an assignment that you have done, then something has not been submitted or submitted properly.  Let's fix it or the grade book will show a zero when grades are averaged! Give me time to get the most current grading done before you ask about PowerPoints and the last discussion.

Also Important:   In order to access your official grades for the semester, you will need to complete the course evaluation. Here is the link for instructions:

Course Evaluation



Final Project:  PowerPoint Presentation

Be sure and review the information on the PowerPoint Project link before submitting your file.  This project is due on Sunday at midnight.


Save your document as Powerpoint_YourName.zip and submit it by Sunday at midnight.


Week 15


Unless you had trouble with your PowerPoint or still have assignments to redo, you are done!!!!

Please complete the course evaluation if you have not yet done so.


There is no final exam for this class unless you choose to take it to replace a low exam grade :-)

Those who wish to take the final may take it on Wednesday, Dec 8 between 8 and 10pm.

  • The Final Exam will have the same number of questions as the Unit Exams (50 questions) and you will have the same amount of time (one hour). 

  • The same question sets (one from each of the 3 units) are used for the Final Exam. 

  • There will be listening questions from each unit

  • The questions will be randomly selected from each question set, so no two students will get the exact same questions. 

  • Since the possible questions are exactly the same as the Unit Exams, there is no separate study guide for the Final Exam.


All students should have received an email from Dr. Dwayne Snider requesting your participation in course evaluations.

Please complete a course evaluation for Popular Music.  The instruction link is below:


Instructions for Course Evaluation



YOU are an awesome class!!






Blackboard/Computer Configuration


Blackboard email setup


It is your responsibility to check into your course each day.  However, if you want to make sure you don't miss any e-mails from me or your fellow classmates, you can have e-mails inside Blackboard forwarded to the e-mail address you check most often.  The procedure is below.

  1. Log on to Blackboard (if you are not already)

  2. Click “My Settings” in the upper right portion of the screen.

  3. Select “My profile” tab and edit the profile to include the email address you actually check.

  4. Click Save.

  5. Now click on “My Tool Option” tab and scroll to the Mail portion of the screen.

  6. Select the box “Forward all mail messages to the e-mail address in my profile.” 

  7. Click Save.

Configure your computer BEFORE you need to submit an assignment or take a test

Computer Settings Troubleshooting Guide

  1. Make sure you have the latest version of whatever music player (like Windows Media Player, etc.) you will be using

  2. Set your browser (Internet Explorer, Firefox, or whatever) so that it does not block pop-ups from this site.  The music files are streamed that way.  Also set it to allow cookies from this site.

  3. If you are using a slow connection speed, your connection may time-out before downloading the streaming file.  You can adjust this setting if you need to.  Do not try to take exams using a dial-up connection!!

  4. Browsers do matter.  If something is not working for you, try another browser.  There are known problems with Google Chrome.  The Course Outline is optimized for Internet Explorer. 

Make sure the computer you will use has been tested for streaming audio files


Assignment Submission


Submit assignments according to the instructions in your Course Outline.  Some will be submitted in the submission blank, and some as  Word documents. Do not try to submit the document without saving it first.  Be sure and save it to a folder where you can retrieve it later.  Sometimes resubmissions are necessary.


Save Word documents as Assignment1_YourName.doc (substituting the correct assignment number and using your own name :-)


Use a heading at the top of the page which includes your name and the assignment number. Use a heading on every assignment you submit.


Upload Word documents in the assignment section as an attachment.  Do NOT send an assignment to me via e-mail.  If you can't submit it, contact me and I will reset the submission.


Look in the Assignments tab for comments after the assignment has been graded.  Don't just look at the gradebook.


Occasionally your assignments may be returned to you for a redo.  I will do this if I feel that you did not understand the assignment, but not if you just did a bad job.  Make your corrections and resubmit through the Assignment section as before.  I will count off 10% of the point value if I send it back to you, but if I graded what you originally sent, that would most probably be a failing grade.  If your original submission is late, you will be penalized 10% of the point value.


By submitting an assignment through the Blackboard system, the student is certifying that:

  • No part of this assignment has been copied from any other source except where due acknowledgment is made in the assignment and only where direct quotes are required
  • No part of this assignment has been written for me or dictated to me by any other person
  • No part of this assignment has been presented by me for assessment in any other course or subject at this or any other institution
  • I retain a copy of this assignment, which I can produce if requested by the course examiner




 It is very important that you name your file according to the instructions above.  Otherwise, I have to rename each file.  So please take a moment to rename the file before submission if you do not name it as above originally.





Syllabus    Links   


Created and maintained by Vicky V. Johnson