Information below is a basic outline of research types.
For more detailed information, see Exploring Research in Music Education & Music Therapy by Kenneth H. Phillips
| ||Examination of past events to add to the knowledge or understanding of those events. This should not be confused with gathering historical information and reporting on facts already known.|
| ||The study of assumptions within the field in order to discover new concepts to guide future thinking.|
Research that involves collecting numeric data.
Descriptive: describes "what is" at a certain point in time
Correlational: establishes a relationship between factors
True experimental: seeks to establish a cause and effect relationship using the scientific method (experimental and control groups)
Quasi-experimental: results when true randomization is not possible
Causal-Comparative: study in which the data is collected after an event
Note: in social science research, causation requires the satisfaction of 3 conditions:
1. that the cause always covaries with the effect (covariance means changing together)
2. that the cause always precedes the effect in time
3. that all alternative explanations for the effect can be ruled out
Research which does not use the scientific method. The researcher interacts and becomes part of the investigation. Types of qualitative research include:
Research concerned with stories; research participants put data into their own words.
Study of what people experience and the meaning of those experiences.
The study of human cultures.
Research methodology whereby theory is generated from data. This approach moves from specific to general.
A detailed study of a particular person or group for the purpose of identifying behavioral models.
|Mixed Methods Research|
| ||Uses both qualitative and quantitative methods|
| ||This is a type of qualitative research, but is listed separately here because of its practical application to music education. This is research that can be done in or about the classroom. This research type consists of 1) plan, 2) action, 3) observation, 4) reflection.|
Created and maintained by Vicky V. Johnson